Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224150
Title: Strategic rule breaking: Time wasting to win soccer games
Authors: Greve, H.R.
Rudi, N.
Walvekar, A. 
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Greve, H.R., Rudi, N., Walvekar, A. (2019). Strategic rule breaking: Time wasting to win soccer games. PLoS ONE 14 (12) : e0224150. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224150
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Rules regulate behavior, but in competitive contexts they also create incentives for rulebreaking because enforcement is imperfect. Sports is a prime example of this, and one that lends itself well to investigation because strategic rule-breaking is often measurable. Professional soccer is a highly competitive team sport with economic rewards for winning given to teams and players. It has a set of rules to ensure fair play, but the enforcement is incomplete, and hence can lead to strategic behavior. Using newly available data, we examine strategic time-wasting, a behavior that help teams win games, or tie games against superior opponents, but is contrary to the objective of game play as entertainment for the spectators. We demonstrate that strategic time-wasting is widespread and is done through delayed restart of the game after goalie capture of the ball, goal kick, throw-in, free kick, corner kick, and substitution. The strategic time-wasting has substantial magnitude, and models of the value per minute predict time-wasting well. Because this time-wasting is a result of incentives created by not stopping the game clock, we predict that a change to rules with stopped game clock when the play is stopped would make game play more time efficient. © 2019 Greve et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/209503
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224150
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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