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Title: Distinct BOLD variability changes in the default mode and salience networks in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum and associations with cognitive decline
Authors: Zhang, L. 
Zuo, X.-N.
Ng, K.K. 
Chong, J.S.X. 
Shim, H.Y. 
Ong, M.Q.W. 
Loke, Y.M. 
Choo, B.L. 
Chong, E.J.Y. 
Wong, Z.X. 
Hilal, S. 
Venketasubramanian, N.
Tan, B.Y.
Chen, C.L.-H. 
Zhou, J.H. 
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Nature Research
Citation: Zhang, L., Zuo, X.-N., Ng, K.K., Chong, J.S.X., Shim, H.Y., Ong, M.Q.W., Loke, Y.M., Choo, B.L., Chong, E.J.Y., Wong, Z.X., Hilal, S., Venketasubramanian, N., Tan, B.Y., Chen, C.L.-H., Zhou, J.H. (2020). Distinct BOLD variability changes in the default mode and salience networks in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum and associations with cognitive decline. Scientific Reports 10 (1) : 6457. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Optimal levels of intrinsic Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal variability (variability hereafter) are important for normative brain functioning. However, it remains largely unknown how network-specific and frequency-specific variability changes along the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) spectrum and relates to cognitive decline. We hypothesized that cognitive impairment was related to distinct BOLD variability alterations in two brain networks with reciprocal relationship, i.e., the AD-specific default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN). We examined variability of resting-state fMRI data at two characteristic slow frequency-bands of slow4 (0.027–0.073 Hz) and slow5 (0.01–0.027 Hz) in 96 AD, 98 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 48 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using two commonly used pre-processing pipelines. Cognition was measured with a neuropsychological assessment battery. Using both global signal regression (GSR) and independent component analysis (ICA), results generally showed a reciprocal DMN-SN variability balance in aMCI (vs. AD and/or HC), although there were distinct frequency-specific variability patterns in association with different pre-processing approaches. Importantly, lower slow4 posterior-DMN variability correlated with poorer baseline cognition/smaller hippocampus and predicted faster cognitive decline in all patients using both GSR and ICA. Altogether, our findings suggest that reciprocal DMN-SN variability balance in aMCI might represent an early signature in neurodegeneration and cognitive decline along the AD spectrum. © 2020, The Author(s).
Source Title: Scientific Reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-63540-4
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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