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Title: Heart rate n-variability (HRnV) and its application to risk stratification of chest pain patients in the emergency department
Authors: Liu, N.
Guo, D.
Koh, Z.X.
Ho, A.F.W. 
Xie, F. 
Tagami, T.
Sakamoto, J.T.
Pek, P.P. 
Chakraborty, B. 
Lim, S.H.
Tan, J.W.C.
Ong, M.E.H. 
Keywords: Chest pain
Emergency department
Heart rate n-variability (HRnV)
Heart rate variability (HRV)
Risk stratification
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Citation: Liu, N., Guo, D., Koh, Z.X., Ho, A.F.W., Xie, F., Tagami, T., Sakamoto, J.T., Pek, P.P., Chakraborty, B., Lim, S.H., Tan, J.W.C., Ong, M.E.H. (2020). Heart rate n-variability (HRnV) and its application to risk stratification of chest pain patients in the emergency department. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 20 (1) : 168. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Chest pain is one of the most common complaints among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). Causes of chest pain can be benign or life threatening, making accurate risk stratification a critical issue in the ED. In addition to the use of established clinical scores, prior studies have attempted to create predictive models with heart rate variability (HRV). In this study, we proposed heart rate n-variability (HRnV), an alternative representation of beat-to-beat variation in electrocardiogram (ECG), and investigated its association with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in ED patients with chest pain. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from the ED of a tertiary hospital in Singapore between September 2010 and July 2015. Patients > 20 years old who presented to the ED with chief complaint of chest pain were conveniently recruited. Five to six-minute single-lead ECGs, demographics, medical history, troponin, and other required variables were collected. We developed the HRnV-Calc software to calculate HRnV parameters. The primary outcome was 30-day MACE, which included all-cause death, acute myocardial infarction, and revascularization. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between individual risk factors and the outcome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the HRnV model (based on leave-one-out cross-validation) against other clinical scores in predicting 30-day MACE. Results: A total of 795 patients were included in the analysis, of which 247 (31%) had MACE within 30 days. The MACE group was older, with a higher proportion being male patients. Twenty-one conventional HRV and 115 HRnV parameters were calculated. In univariable analysis, eleven HRV and 48 HRnV parameters were significantly associated with 30-day MACE. The multivariable stepwise logistic regression identified 16 predictors that were strongly associated with MACE outcome; these predictors consisted of one HRV, seven HRnV parameters, troponin, ST segment changes, and several other factors. The HRnV model outperformed several clinical scores in the ROC analysis. Conclusions: The novel HRnV representation demonstrated its value of augmenting HRV and traditional risk factors in designing a robust risk stratification tool for patients with chest pain in the ED. @ 2020 The Author(s).
Source Title: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
ISSN: 1471-2261
DOI: 10.1186/s12872-020-01455-8
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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