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Title: Metabolic profiling of female tg2576 mouse brains provides novel evidence supporting intranasal low-dose pioglitazone for long-term treatment at an early stage of alzheimer’s disease
Authors: Wong, L.R.
Wong, P. 
Ho, P.C.-L. 
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease
Intranasal delivery
Metabolic profiling
PLGA nanoparticles
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: MDPI AG
Citation: Wong, L.R., Wong, P., Ho, P.C.-L. (2020). Metabolic profiling of female tg2576 mouse brains provides novel evidence supporting intranasal low-dose pioglitazone for long-term treatment at an early stage of alzheimer’s disease. Biomedicines 8 (12) : 1-23. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that disruptions in brain energy metabolism may be a key player in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Pioglitazone (PIO) has been found to exert beneficial effects on metabolic dysfunction in many AD preclinical studies. However, limited success in clinical trials remains an obstacle to its development for the treatment of AD. PIO’s poor brain penetration was often cited as a contributing factor to the lack of clinical benefit. In this study, we prepared PIO-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and administered them as suspended nanoparticles via nebulization. Preliminary investigation of drug distribution to the brain revealed comparatively reduced systemic exposure after administering PIO nanoparticles via the intranasal route. In vitro, extracellular flux analysis showed significantly raised spare respiratory capacity when cells were treated with low-dose PIO nanoparticles. Tg2576 transgenic mice treated with low-dose PIO nanoparticles over four months exhibited an overall trend of reduced hyperactivity in open field tests but did not show any visible effect on alternation rates in the Y-maze task. Subsequent1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of their plasma and different brain regions revealed differences in metabolic profiles in the cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus of Tg2576 mice after long-term PIO treatment, but not in their midbrain and plasma. In particular, the specificity of PIO’s treatment effects on perturbed amino acid metabolism was observed in the cortex of transgenic mice with increases in alanine and N-acetylaspartate levels, supporting the notion that PIO treatment exerts beneficial effects on impaired energy metabolism associated with AD. In conclusion, inhalation exposure to PIO nanoparticles presents an exciting opportunity that this drug could be administered intranasally at a much lower dose while achieving a sufficient level in the brain to elicit metabolic benefits at an early stage of AD but with reduced systemic exposure. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Biomedicines
ISSN: 2227-9059
DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines8120589
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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