Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008880118
Title: Three-Step Nucleation of Metal–Organic Framework Nanocrystals
Authors: LIU XIANGWEN 
CHEE SEE WEE 
Sanoj Raj
Michal Sawczyk
Petr Kral
UTKUR MIRZIYODOVICH MIRSAIDOV 
Keywords: Crystallization
In situ TEM
MOF
Nucleation
Issue Date: 9-Mar-2021
Publisher: PNAS
Citation: LIU XIANGWEN, CHEE SEE WEE, Sanoj Raj, Michal Sawczyk, Petr Kral, UTKUR MIRZIYODOVICH MIRSAIDOV (2021-03-09). Three-Step Nucleation of Metal–Organic Framework Nanocrystals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 118 (10). ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008880118
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Related Dataset(s): 10.1073/pnas.2008880118
Abstract: Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline nanoporous materials with great potential for a wide range of industrial applications. Understanding the nucleation and early growth stages of these materials from a solution is critical for their design and synthesis. Despite their importance, the pathways through which MOFs nucleate are largely unknown. Using a combination of in situ liquid-phase and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, we show that zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 MOF nanocrystals nucleate from precursor solution via three distinct steps: 1) liquid–liquid phase separation into solute-rich and solute-poor regions, followed by 2) direct condensation of the solute-rich region into an amorphous aggregate and 3) crystallization of the aggregate into a MOF. The three-step pathway for MOF nucleation shown here cannot be accounted for by conventional nucleation models and provides direct evidence for the nonclassical nucleation pathways in open-framework materials, suggesting that a solute-rich phase is a common precursor for crystallization from a solution.
Source Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/187501
ISSN: 00278424
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008880118
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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