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Title: Thermal effects on the Raman phonon of few-layer phosphorene
Authors: Ling, Z.-P 
Ang, K.-W 
Keywords: Gate dielectrics
Hafnium oxides
Channel materials
Compressive strain
Elevated temperature
Hafnium dioxide
High- k gate dielectrics
High-k dielectric
Out diffusion
Issue Date: 2015
Citation: Ling, Z.-P, Ang, K.-W (2015). Thermal effects on the Raman phonon of few-layer phosphorene. APL Materials 3 (12) : 126104. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Two-dimensional phosphorene is a promising channel material for next generation transistor applications due to its superior carrier transport property. Here, we report the influence of thermal effects on the Raman phonon of few-layer phosphorene formed on hafnium-dioxide (HfO2) high-k dielectric. When annealed at elevated temperatures (up to 200 °C), the phosphorene film was found to exhibit a blue shift in both the out-of-plane (A1g) and in-plane (B2g and A2g) phonon modes as a result of compressive strain effect. This is attributed to the out-diffusion of hafnium (Hf) atoms from the underlying HfO2 dielectric, which compresses the phosphorene in both the zigzag and armchair directions. With a further increase in thermal energy beyond 250 °C, strain relaxation within phosphorene eventually took place. When this happens, the phosphorene was unable to retain its intrinsic crystallinity prior to annealing, as evident from the broadening of full-width at half maximum of the Raman phonon. These results provide an important insight into the impact of thermal effects on the structural integrity of phosphorene when integrated with high-k gate dielectric. © 2015 Author(s).
Source Title: APL Materials
ISSN: 2166532X
DOI: 10.1063/1.4937468
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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