Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-015-0056-y
Title: The electronic stethoscope
Authors: Leng, S
Tan, R.S 
Chai, K.T.C
Wang, C
Ghista, D
Zhong, L 
Keywords: Algorithms
Artificial intelligence
Cardiology
Computer aided instruction
Diagnosis
Heart
Learning systems
Signal encoding
Smartphones
Acoustic techniques
Automatic systems
Computer-aided systems
De-noising algorithm
Electronic stethoscope
Heart sounds
Machine learning techniques
Medical professionals
Computer aided diagnosis
amplifier
analog digital converter
automation
cardiovascular system examination
classification
computer aided design
digital filtering
electronic stethoscope
equipment design
heart auscultation
heart disease
heart sound
heart sound denoising
heart sound segmentation
human
information processing
machine learning
marketing
mobile application
mobile phone
paramedical personnel
phonocardiography
priority journal
Review
sensor
electrical equipment
signal processing
smartphone
stethoscope
Electrical Equipment and Supplies
Heart Sounds
Humans
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Smartphone
Stethoscopes
Issue Date: 2015
Citation: Leng, S, Tan, R.S, Chai, K.T.C, Wang, C, Ghista, D, Zhong, L (2015). The electronic stethoscope. BioMedical Engineering Online 14 (1) : 66. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-015-0056-y
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system. © 2015 Leng et al.
Source Title: BioMedical Engineering Online
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/181444
ISSN: 1475925X
DOI: 10.1186/s12938-015-0056-y
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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