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Title: Preleukemic and second-hit mutational events in an acute myeloid leukemia patient with a novel germline RUNX1 mutation
Authors: Ng, I.K.S
Lee, J
Ng, C
Kosmo, B
Chiu, L
Seah, E
Mok, M.M.H 
Tan, K
Osato, M 
Chng, W.-J 
Yan, B
Tan, L.K 
Keywords: anthracycline
cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A
DNA methyltransferase 3A
mycophenolate mofetil
transcription factor GATA 2
transcription factor RUNX1
acute myeloid leukemia
bcor gene
bcorl1 gene
bone marrow biopsy
case report
clinical article
consolidation chemotherapy
flow cytometry
gene deletion
gene frequency
gene insertion
gene mutation
genetic variability
haploidentical transplantation
leukocyte count
molecularly targeted therapy
myelodysplastic syndrome
next generation sequencing
phf6 gene
platelet count
priority journal
Sanger sequencing
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: Ng, I.K.S, Lee, J, Ng, C, Kosmo, B, Chiu, L, Seah, E, Mok, M.M.H, Tan, K, Osato, M, Chng, W.-J, Yan, B, Tan, L.K (2018). Preleukemic and second-hit mutational events in an acute myeloid leukemia patient with a novel germline RUNX1 mutation. Biomarker Research 6 (1) : 16. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: Germline mutations in the RUNX1 transcription factor give rise to a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition classified under the entity: Familial Platelet Disorders with predisposition to Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (FPD/AML). While several studies have identified a myriad of germline RUNX1 mutations implicated in this disorder, second-hit mutational events are necessary for patients with hereditary thrombocytopenia to develop full-blown AML. The molecular picture behind this process remains unclear. We describe a patient of Malay descent with an unreported 7-bp germline RUNX1 frameshift deletion, who developed second-hit mutations that could have brought about the leukaemic transformation from a pre-leukaemic state. These mutations were charted through the course of the treatment and stem cell transplant, showing a clear correlation between her clinical presentation and the mutations present. Case presentation: The patient was a 27-year-old Malay woman who presented with AML on the background of hereditary thrombocytopenia affecting her father and 3 brothers. Initial molecular testing revealed the same novel RUNX1 mutation in all 5 individuals. The patient received standard induction, consolidation chemotherapy, and a haploidentical stem cell transplant from her mother with normal RUNX1 profile. Comprehensive genomic analyses were performed at diagnosis, post-chemotherapy and post-transplant. A total of 8 mutations (RUNX1, GATA2, DNMT3A, BCORL1, BCOR, 2 PHF6 and CDKN2A) were identified in the pre-induction sample, of which 5 remained (RUNX1, DNMT3A, BCORL1, BCOR and 1 out of 2 PHF6) in the post-treatment sample and none were present post-transplant. In brief, the 3 mutations which were lost along with the leukemic cells at complete morphological remission were most likely acquired leukemic driver mutations that were responsible for the AML transformation from a pre-leukemic germline RUNX1-mutated state. On the contrary, the 5 mutations that persisted post-treatment, including the germline RUNX1 mutation, were likely to be part of the preleukemic clone. Conclusion: Further studies are necessary to assess the prevalence of these preleukemic and secondary mutations in the larger FPD/AML patient cohort and establish their prognostic significance. Given the molecular heterogeneity of FPD/AML and other AML subtypes, a better understanding of mutational classes and their involvement in AML pathogenesis can improve risk stratification of patients for more effective and targeted therapy. © 2018 The Author(s).
Source Title: Biomarker Research
ISSN: 20507771
DOI: 10.1186/s40364-018-0130-2
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