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Title: Wavelength-flattened directional coupler based mid-infrared chemical sensor using bragg wavelength in subwavelength grating structure
Authors: Dong, B 
Hu, T
Luo, X
Chang, Y 
Guo, X
Wang, H
Kwong, D.-L 
Lo, G.-Q
Lee, C 
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: Dong, B, Hu, T, Luo, X, Chang, Y, Guo, X, Wang, H, Kwong, D.-L, Lo, G.-Q, Lee, C (2018). Wavelength-flattened directional coupler based mid-infrared chemical sensor using bragg wavelength in subwavelength grating structure. Nanomaterials 8 (11) : 893. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: In this paper, we report a compact wavelength-flattened directional coupler (WFDC) based chemical sensor featuring an incorporated subwavelength grating (SWG) structure for the mid-infrared (MIR). By incorporating a SWG structure into directional coupler (DC), the dispersion in DC can be engineered to allow broadband operation which is advantageous to extract spectroscopic information for MIR sensing analysis. Meanwhile, the Bragg reflection introduced by the SWG structure produces a sharp trough at the Bragg wavelength. This sharp trough is sensitive to the surrounding refractive index (RI) change caused by the existence of analytes. Therefore, high sensitivity can be achieved in a small footprint. Around fivefold enhancement in the operation bandwidth compared to conventional DC is achieved for 100% coupling efficiency in a 40 µm long WFDC experimentally. Detection of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) in ethanol (C2H5OH) is investigated in a SWG-based WFDC sensor 136.8 µm long. Sensing performance is studied by 3D finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation while sensitivity is derived by computation. Both RI sensing and absorption sensing are examined. RI sensing reveals a sensitivity of ?0.47% self-normalized transmitted power change per percentage of CH2Cl2 concentration while 0.12% change in the normalized total integrated output power is realized in the absorption sensing. As the first demonstration of the DC based sensor in the MIR, our device has the potential for tertiary mixture sensing by utilizing both changes in the real and imaginary part of RI. It can also be used as a broadband building block for MIR application such as spectroscopic sensing system. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Source Title: Nanomaterials
ISSN: 20794991
DOI: 10.3390/nano8110893
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