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Title: Keystone species in pregnancy gingivitis: A snapshot of oral microbiome during pregnancy and postpartum period
Authors: Balan P.
Chong Y.S. 
Umashankar S. 
Swarup S. 
Loke W.M. 
Lopez V. 
He H.G. 
Seneviratne C.J. 
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Citation: Balan P., Chong Y.S., Umashankar S., Swarup S., Loke W.M., Lopez V., He H.G., Seneviratne C.J. (2018). Keystone species in pregnancy gingivitis: A snapshot of oral microbiome during pregnancy and postpartum period. Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (OCT) : 2360. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: It is well known that pregnancy is under the constant influence of hormonal, metabolic and immunological factors and this may impact the oral microbiota toward pregnancy gingivitis. However, it is still not clear how the oral microbial dysbiosis can modulate oral diseases as oral microbiome during pregnancy is very poorly characterized. In addition, the recent revelation that placental microbiome is akin to oral microbiome further potentiates the importance of oral dysbiosis in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, leveraging on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology, we present a snapshot of the variations in the oral microbial composition with the progression of pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its association with pregnancy gingivitis. Despite the stability of oral microbial diversity during pregnancy and postpartum period, we observed that the microbiome makes a pathogenic shift during pregnancy and reverts back to a healthy microbiome during the postpartum period. Co-occurrence network analysis provided a mechanistic explanation of the pathogenicity of the microbiome during pregnancy and predicted taxa at hubs of interaction. Targeting the taxa which form the ecological guilds in the underlying microbiome would help to modulate the microbial pathogenicity during pregnancy, thereby alleviating risk for oral diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our study has also uncovered the possibility of novel species in subgingival plaque and saliva as the key players in the causation of pregnancy gingivitis. The keystone species hold the potential to open up avenues for designing microbiome modulation strategies to improve host health during pregnancy. © 2018 Balan, Chong, Umashankar, Swarup, Loke, Lopez, He and Seneviratne.
Source Title: Frontiers in Microbiology
ISSN: 1664302X
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02360
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