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Title: Charge disproportionate molecular redox for discrete memristive and memcapacitive switching
Authors: Goswami, Sreetosh 
Rath, Santi P.
Thompson, Damien
Hedstrom, Svante
Annamalai, Meenakshi 
Pramanick, Rajib
Ilic, B. Robert
Sarkar, Soumya 
Hooda, Sonu
Nijhuis, Christian A. 
Martin, Jens 
Williams, R. Stanley
Goswami, Sreebrata
Venkatesan, T. 
Issue Date: 23-Mar-2020
Publisher: Nature Research
Citation: Goswami, Sreetosh, Rath, Santi P., Thompson, Damien, Hedstrom, Svante, Annamalai, Meenakshi, Pramanick, Rajib, Ilic, B. Robert, Sarkar, Soumya, Hooda, Sonu, Nijhuis, Christian A., Martin, Jens, Williams, R. Stanley, Goswami, Sreebrata, Venkatesan, T. (2020-03-23). Charge disproportionate molecular redox for discrete memristive and memcapacitive switching. NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY 15 (5) : 380-389. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Electronic symmetry breaking by charge disproportionation results in multifaceted changes in the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of a material, triggering ferroelectricity, metal/insulator transition and colossal magnetoresistance. Yet, charge disproportionation lacks technological relevance because it occurs only under specific physical conditions of high or low temperature or high pressure. Here we demonstrate a voltage-triggered charge disproportionation in thin molecular films of a metal–organic complex occurring in ambient conditions. This provides a technologically relevant molecular route for simultaneous realization of a ternary memristor and a binary memcapacitor, scalable down to a device area of 60 nm2. Supported by mathematical modelling, our results establish that multiple memristive states can be functionally non-volatile, yet discrete—a combination perceived as theoretically prohibited. Our device could be used as a binary or ternary memristor, a binary memcapacitor or both concomitantly, and unlike the existing ‘continuous state’ memristors, its discrete states are optimal for high-density, ultra-low-energy digital computing. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
ISSN: 17483387
DOI: 10.1038/s41565-020-0653-1
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