Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175886
Title: Comprehensive analysis of phospholipids and glycolipids in the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis
Authors: Rashid R. 
Cazenave-Gassiot A. 
Gao I.H.
Nair Z.J.
Kumar J.K. 
Gao L. 
Kline K.A.
Wenk M.R. 
Keywords: cardiolipin
daptomycin
diacylglycerol
diglucosyl diacylglycerol derivative
glycerolipid
glycerophospho diglucosyl diacylglycerol derivative
lysyl phosphatidylglycerol derivative
phosphatidylglycerol
phospholipid
triacylglycerol
unclassified drug
antiinfective agent
cardiolipin
daptomycin
diacylglycerol
lysine
lysylphosphatidylglycerol
phosphatidylglycerol
triacylglycerol
antibiotic resistance
Article
bacterial strain
chemical bond
concentration (parameters)
controlled study
Enterococcus faecalis
gene locus
gene mutation
in vitro study
lipid analysis
liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
minimum inhibitory concentration
multiple reaction monitoring
nonhuman
quantitative analysis
single nucleotide polymorphism
whole genome sequencing
wild type
biotransformation
classification
drug effects
Enterococcus faecalis
growth, development and aging
isolation and purification
lipid metabolism
liquid chromatography
metabolism
metabolomics
multidrug resistance
physiology
tandem mass spectrometry
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Biotransformation
Cardiolipins
Chromatography, Liquid
Daptomycin
Diglycerides
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Enterococcus faecalis
Lipid Metabolism
Lysine
Metabolomics
Phosphatidylglycerols
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Triglycerides
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Rashid R., Cazenave-Gassiot A., Gao I.H., Nair Z.J., Kumar J.K., Gao L., Kline K.A., Wenk M.R. (2017). Comprehensive analysis of phospholipids and glycolipids in the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. PLoS ONE 12 (4) : e0175886. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175886
Abstract: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, opportunistic, pathogenic bacterium that causes a significant number of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients. The development of antibiotic resistance in hospital-associated pathogens is a formidable public health threat. In E. faecalis and other Gram-positive pathogens, correlations exist between lipid composition and antibiotic resistance. Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic daptomycin is accompanied by a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) levels, whereas multiple peptide resistance factor (MprF) converts anionic PG into cationic lysyl-PG via a trans-esterification reaction, providing resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Unlike previous studies that relied on thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometry, we have performed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) directly on lipids extracted from E. faecalis, and quantified the phospholipids through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). In the daptomycin-sensitive E. faecalis strain OG1RF, we have identified 17 PGs, 8 lysyl-PGs (LPGs), 23 cardiolipins (CL), 3 glycerophospho-diglucosyl-diacylglycerols (GPDGDAG), 5 diglucosyl-diacylglycerols (DGDAG), 3 diacylglycerols (DAGs), and 4 triacylglycerols (TAGs). We have quantified PG and shown that PG levels vary during growth of E. faecalis in vitro. We also show that two daptomycin-resistant (DapR) strains of E. faecalis have substantially lower levels of PG and LPG levels. Since LPG levels in these strains are lower, daptomycin resistance is likely due to the reduction in PG. This lipidome map is the first comprehensive analysis of membrane phospholipids and glycolipids in the important human pathogen E. faecalis, for which antimicrobial resistance and altered lipid homeostasis have been intimately linked. © 2017 Rashid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/166011
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175886
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