Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132321
Title: Race/ethnic differences in the associations of the Framingham risk factors with carotid IMT and cardiovascular events
Authors: Gijsberts C.M.
Groenewegen K.A.
Hoefer I.E.
Eijkemans M.J.C.
Asselbergs F.W.
Anderson T.J.
Britton A.R.
Dekker J.M.
Engström G.
Evans G.W.
De Graaf J.
Grobbee D.E.
Hedblad B.
Holewijn S.
Ikeda A.
Kitagawa K.
Kitamura A.
De Kleijn D.P.V. 
Lonn E.M.
Lorenz M.W.
Mathiesen E.B.
Nijpels G.
Okazaki S.
O'Leary D.H.
Pasterkamp G.
Peters S.A.E.
Polak J.F.
Price J.F.
Robertson C.
Rembold C.M.
Rosvall M.
Rundek T.
Salonen J.T.
Sitzer M.
Stehouwer C.D.A.
Bots M.L.
Den Ruijter H.M.
Keywords: cholesterol
high density lipoprotein cholesterol
low density lipoprotein cholesterol
high density lipoprotein cholesterol
low density lipoprotein cholesterol
arterial wall thickness
Article
Asian
atherosclerosis
Black person
cardiovascular disease
Caucasian
cerebrovascular accident
ethnic difference
Framingham risk score
heart infarction
Hispanic
human
race difference
smoking
systolic blood pressure
adult
age distribution
aged
ancestry group
blood
carotid artery disease
comorbidity
comparative study
diabetes mellitus
dyslipidemia
ethnic group
ethnology
female
follow up
health
hypertension
incidence
male
meta analysis
middle aged
pathology
prevalence
proportional hazards model
risk factor
statistical model
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Carotid Artery Diseases
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Cholesterol, HDL
Cholesterol, LDL
Comorbidity
Continental Population Groups
Diabetes Mellitus
Dyslipidemias
Ethnic Groups
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Global Health
Humans
Hypertension
Incidence
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk Factors
Smoking
Stroke
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: Gijsberts C.M., Groenewegen K.A., Hoefer I.E., Eijkemans M.J.C., Asselbergs F.W., Anderson T.J., Britton A.R., Dekker J.M., Engström G., Evans G.W., De Graaf J., Grobbee D.E., Hedblad B., Holewijn S., Ikeda A., Kitagawa K., Kitamura A., De Kleijn D.P.V., Lonn E.M., Lorenz M.W., Mathiesen E.B., Nijpels G., Okazaki S., O'Leary D.H., Pasterkamp G., Peters S.A.E., Polak J.F., Price J.F., Robertson C., Rembold C.M., Rosvall M., Rundek T., Salonen J.T., Sitzer M., Stehouwer C.D.A., Bots M.L., Den Ruijter H.M. (2015). Race/ethnic differences in the associations of the Framingham risk factors with carotid IMT and cardiovascular events. PLoS ONE 10 (7) : e0132321. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132321
Abstract: Background: Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Methods: We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic). We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity. Results: Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites. Conclusion: The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention. © 2015 Gijsberts et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/165691
ISSN: 19326203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132321
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