Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100705
Title: Maternal serum and breast milk vitamin D levels: Findings from the Universiti Sains Malaysia pregnancy cohort study
Authors: Mohamed H.J.J.
Rowan A.
Fong B.
Loy S.-L. 
Keywords: 25 hydroxyvitamin D
multivitamin
vitamin D
adult
article
breast milk
cohort analysis
delivery
female
human
lactation
major clinical study
Malaysia
nutritional status
puerperium
risk factor
second trimester pregnancy
third trimester pregnancy
vitamin blood level
vitamin D deficiency
vitamin intake
blood
breast milk
clinical trial
metabolism
pregnancy
pregnancy complication
vitamin D deficiency
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Lactation
Milk, Human
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Vitamin D
Vitamin D Deficiency
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: Mohamed H.J.J., Rowan A., Fong B., Loy S.-L. (2014). Maternal serum and breast milk vitamin D levels: Findings from the Universiti Sains Malaysia pregnancy cohort study. PLoS ONE 9 (7) : e100705. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100705
Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency has become a global health issue in pregnant women. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of maternal vitamin D status by measuring maternal serum and breast milk 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and to determine the association between maternal serum and milk 25(OH)D levels. Methods: Data was obtained from the Universiti Sains Malaysia Pregnancy Cohort Study. This study was conducted from April 2010 to December 2012 in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Blood samples from pregnant women aged 19 to 40 years were drawn in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, while breast milk samples at delivery, 2, 6 and 12 months postpartum were collected to analyze for 25(OH)D levels. A total of 102 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Results: Vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was detected in 60% and 37% of women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. There were 6% and 23% of women who reached normal level of vitamin D status in the second trimester and the third trimester, respectively. Multivitamin intakes during pregnancy were significantly associated with higher serum 25(OH)D levels in the second trimester (? = 9.16, p = 0.005) and the third trimester (? = 13.65, p = 0.003). 25(OH)D levels in breast milk during the first year of lactation ranged from 1.01 to 1.26 nmol/L. Higher maternal serum 25(OH)D level in the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with an elevated level of 25(OH)D in breast milk at delivery (? = 0.002, p = 0.026). Conclusions: This study shows that high proportions of Malay pregnant women are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Maternal vitamin D status in the second trimester of pregnancy was found to influence vitamin D level in breast milk at delivery. © 2014 Jan Mohamed et al.
Source Title: PLoS ONE
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/161400
ISSN: 1932-6203
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100705
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