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Title: Impact ionization by hot carriers in a black phosphorus field effect transistor
Authors: Ahmed F.
Kim Y.D.
Yang Z.
He P. 
Hwang E.
Yang H. 
Hone J.
Yoo W.J.
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2018
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Citation: Ahmed F., Kim Y.D., Yang Z., He P., Hwang E., Yang H., Hone J., Yoo W.J. (2018-12-01). Impact ionization by hot carriers in a black phosphorus field effect transistor. Nature Communications 9 (1) : 3414. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The strong Coulombic interactions in miniaturized structures can lead to efficient carrier multiplication, which is essential for many-body physics and design of efficient photonic devices beyond thermodynamic conversion limits. However, carrier multiplication has rarely been realized in layered semiconducting materials despite strong electronic interactions. Here, we report the experimental observation of unusual carrier multiplication in a multilayer black phosphorus device. Electric field-dependent Hall measurements confirm a substantial increase of carrier density in multilayer black phosphorus channel, which is attributed to the impact ionization by energetic carriers. This mechanism relies on the generation of self-heating induced charge carriers under the large electric field due to competition between electron杄lectron and electron杙honon interactions in the direct and narrow band gap (0.3 eV) of the multilayer black phosphorus. These findings point the way toward utilization of carrier multiplication to enhance the performance of electronics and optoelectronics devices based on two-dimensional materials. � 2018, The Author(s).
Source Title: Nature Communications
ISSN: 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-05981-0
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