Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.10.039
Title: An analysis of the pull-out strength of 6 suture loop configurations in flexor tendons
Authors: Karjalainen, T.
He, M.
Chong, A.K.S.
Lim, A.Y.T. 
Ryhanen, J.
Keywords: Biomechanical testing
flexor tendon repair
loop configuration
pull-out
suture
Issue Date: Feb-2012
Citation: Karjalainen, T., He, M., Chong, A.K.S., Lim, A.Y.T., Ryhanen, J. (2012-02). An analysis of the pull-out strength of 6 suture loop configurations in flexor tendons. Journal of Hand Surgery 37 (2) : 217-223. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.10.039
Abstract: Purpose: New, stronger suture materials have been introduced for flexor tendon surgery. The advantage of these materials can be lost if the suture loop pulls out from the tendon. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of various locking loops to grip the tendon. Methods: We inserted 4 different standard and 2 experimental locking loops with 200-μm nitinol wire into human cadaveric flexor digitorum profundus tendons. The standard loops were: group 1, cruciate; group 2, Pennington modified Kessler; group 3, cross-stitch; and group 4, Lim-Tsai. The experimental loops were: group 5, a composition of Pennington modified Kessler with a cross-stitch loop; and group 6, a locking Kessler type of loop with a superficial transverse component. We loaded the loops until failure. We recorded the pull-out strength and stiffness and documented failure mechanisms during the pull-out test. Results: The cruciate loop had the weakest holding capacity, 20 N, which was significantly less than in groups 2 to 6. The cross-stitch loop, Lim-Tsai loop, and modified Kessler loop performed similarly (36 N, 37 N, and 39 N, respectively). The experimental loops had the highest pull-out strength (group 5, 59 N; and group 6, 60 N, both significantly greater than groups 1 to 4). The mode of failure was pull-out for all of the standard loops and 7 of the experimental loops. Of 20 experimental loops, 13 failed by suture rupture. Conclusions: The 2 experimental loop configurations demonstrated higher pull-out strength and may have advantages when used with newer and stronger suture materials. The number of the locking components in the loops and the way the tension is transmitted to the tendon fibrils explain the results. Clinical relevance: The loops presented in this study and that grip the tendon better may be useful with new materials that have high tensile strength. © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand.
Source Title: Journal of Hand Surgery
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/127077
ISSN: 03635023
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.10.039
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