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|dc.title||Accurate targeting of botulinum toxin injections: How to and why|
|dc.identifier.citation||Lim, E.C.H., Quek, A.M.L., Seet, R.C.S. (2011-11). Accurate targeting of botulinum toxin injections: How to and why. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 17 (SUPPL. 1) : S34-S39. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.06.016|
|dc.description.abstract||Botulinum toxin (BTX), the exotoxin of the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium botulinum, is used to ameliorate pain and treat conditions associated with glandular, smooth and skeletal muscle overactivity. The benefits derived from the injection of BTX may be negated by unintended weakness of uninjected muscles. Performance of BTX injections may be facile, requiring only surface marking or clinical-localisation techniques but may be more technically demanding, necessitating the use of equipment, such as electromyography (EMG) or ultrasonography (U/S). Less often, endoscopic, fluoroscopic or computed tomographic (CT) guidance may be required. Despite evidence to support the efficacy of BTX injections in treating many conditions, there is no evidence to support the superiority of any one injection technique over needle localisation using surface anatomy. This is possibly due to the lack of well-designed controlled studies, that is, current studies are hampered by small patient numbers, lack of consistency of injection technique and the application of different rating scales. Intuitively, certain injection techniques are more suited to injection of specific muscles or conditions, for example, U/S or passive-monitoring EMG should be used to treat cervical dystonia, active-monitoring EMG applied for strabismus injections, whereas either active-monitoring EMG or endoscopy is indicated when giving BTX for spasmodic dysphonia. Finally, electrical-stimulation EMG or U/S (or a combination of both) would be most suitable when injecting the forearm muscles for spasticity or writer's cramps. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.|
|dc.description.sourcetitle||Parkinsonism and Related Disorders|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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