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Title: Expansion mechanisms and functional annotations of hypothetical genes in the rice genome
Authors: Jiang, S.-Y.
Christoffels, A.
Ramamoorthy, R.
Ramachandran, S. 
Issue Date: Aug-2009
Citation: Jiang, S.-Y., Christoffels, A., Ramamoorthy, R., Ramachandran, S. (2009-08). Expansion mechanisms and functional annotations of hypothetical genes in the rice genome. Plant Physiology 150 (4) : 1997-2008. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: In each completely sequenced genome, 30% to 50% of genes are annotated as uncharacterized hypothetical genes. In the rice (Oryza sativa) genome, 10,918 hypothetical genes were annotated in the latest version (release 6) of the Michigan State University rice genome annotation. We have implemented an integrative approach to analyze their duplication/expansion and function. The analyses show that tandem/segmental duplication and transposition/retrotransposition have significantly contributed to the expansion of hypothetical genes despite their different contribution rates. A total of 3,769 hypothetical genes have been detected from retrogene, tandem, segmental, Pack-MULE, or long terminated direct repeat-related duplication/ expansion. The nonsynonymous substitutions per site and synonymous substitutions per site analyses showed that 21.65% of them were still functional, accounting for 7.47% of total hypothetical genes. Global expression analyses have identified 1,672 expressed hypothetical genes. Among them, 415 genes might function in a developmental stage-specific manner. Antisense strand expression and small RNA analyses have demonstrated that a high percentage of these hypothetical genes might play important roles in negatively regulating gene expression. Homologous searches against Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and indica rice genomes suggest that most of the hypothetical genes could be annotated from recently evolved genomic sequences. These data advance the understanding of rice hypothetical genes as being involved in lineage-specific expansion and that they function in a specific developmental stage. Our analyses also provide a valuable means to facilitate the characterization and functional annotation of hypothetical genes in other organisms. © 2009 American Society of Plant Biologists.
Source Title: Plant Physiology
ISSN: 00320889
DOI: 10.1104/pp.109.139402
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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