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Title: Variability and recognition memory: Are there analogous indexical effects in music and speech?
Authors: Lim, S.W.H. 
Goh, W.D.
Keywords: Melody recognition memory
Spoken word recognition
Talker-variability effects
Timbre-repetition effects
Issue Date: 1-Aug-2012
Citation: Lim, S.W.H., Goh, W.D. (2012-08-01). Variability and recognition memory: Are there analogous indexical effects in music and speech?. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 24 (5) : 602-616. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Indexical effects refer to the influence of surface variability of the to-be-remembered items, such as different voices speaking the same words or different timbres (musical instruments) playing the same melodies, on recognition memory performance. The nature of timbre effects in melody recognition was investigated in two experiments. Experiment 1 showed that melodies that remained in the same timbre from study to test were discriminated better than melodies presented in a previously studied but different, or unstudied timbre at test. Timbre effects are attributed solely to instance-specific matching, rather than timbre-specific familiarity. In Experiment 2, when a previously unstudied timbre was similar to the original timbre and it played the melodies at test, performance was comparable to the condition when the exact same timbre was repeated at test. The use of a similar timbre at test enabled the listener to discriminate old from new melodies reliably. Overall, our data suggest that timbre-specific information is encoded and stored in long-term memory. Analogous indexical effects arising from timbre (nonmusical) and voice (nonlexical) attributes in music and speech processing respectively are implied and discussed. © 2012 Copyright Psychology Press Ltd.
Source Title: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
ISSN: 20445911
DOI: 10.1080/20445911.2012.674029
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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