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Title: Prevalence of refractive errors in teenage high school students in Singapore
Authors: Quek, T.P.L.
Chua, C.G.
Chong, C.S.
Chong, J.H.
Hey, H.W.
Lee, J.
Lim, Y.F.
Saw, S.-M. 
Keywords: Epidemiology
Refractive condition
Issue Date: Jan-2004
Citation: Quek, T.P.L., Chua, C.G., Chong, C.S., Chong, J.H., Hey, H.W., Lee, J., Lim, Y.F., Saw, S.-M. (2004-01). Prevalence of refractive errors in teenage high school students in Singapore. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 24 (1) : 47-55. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: We aimed to study the prevalence of refractive conditions in Singapore teenagers. Grade 9 and 10 students (n = 946) aged 15-19 years from two secondary schools in Singapore were recruited. The refractive errors of the students' eyes were measured using non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Sociodemographic data and information on risk factors for myopia (such as reading and writing) were also obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of refractive conditions was found to be: myopia [spherical equivalent (SE) at least -0.50 D] - 73.9%, hyperopia (SE at least +0.50 D) - 1.5%, astigmatism (cylinder at least -0.50 D) - 58.7% and anisometropia (SE difference at least 1.00 D) - 11.2%. After adjusting for age and gender, currently doing more than 20.5 h of reading and writing a week was found to be positively associated with myopia [odds ratio 1.12 (95% CI 1.04-1.20, p = 0.003)], as was reading and writing at a close distance and a better educational stream. The prevalence of myopia (73.9%) in Singapore teenagers is high. Current reading and writing habits, reading at close distances and a better educational stream are possible risk factors for myopia. © 2004 The College of Optometrists.
Source Title: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics
ISSN: 02755408
DOI: 10.1046/j.1475-1313.2003.00166.x
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