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Title: Exposure parameters in proton beam writing for hydrogen silsesquioxane
Authors: van Kan, J.A. 
Zhang, F. 
Zhang, C. 
Bettiol, A.A. 
Watt, F. 
Keywords: Direct write
High aspect ratio
Proton beam writing
Issue Date: Apr-2008
Citation: van Kan, J.A., Zhang, F., Zhang, C., Bettiol, A.A., Watt, F. (2008-04). Exposure parameters in proton beam writing for hydrogen silsesquioxane. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 266 (8) : 1676-1679. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: In proton beam writing (PBW) a focused MeV proton beam is scanned in a predetermined pattern over a resist (e.g. PMMA, SU-8 or HSQ), which is subsequently chemically developed. In e-beam writing as well as p-beam writing the energy loss of the primary beam is dominated by energy transfer to substrate electrons. Unlike the high energy secondary electrons generated during e-beam writing the secondary electrons induced by the primary proton beam have low energy and therefore a limited range, resulting in minimal proximity effects. The low proximity effects exhibited by p-beam writing coupled with the straight trajectory and high penetration of the proton beam enables the production of high aspect ratio, high density 3D micro and nanostructures with well defined smooth side walls to be directly written into resist materials. This property together with the stability and focusing power of the end station ensures even exposures with nm smoothness and allows fabrication of details down to the 20 nm level. In this paper, we present results like contrast and sensitivity for PBW using, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) and XR-1541, both are non-C based resists. Unlike PMMA and SU-8 resist HSQ shows aging effects, requiring optimized processing parameters in PBW. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
ISSN: 0168583X
DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2007.12.081
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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