Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/112110
Title: The enhancer of human papillomavirus type 16: Binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factors oct-1, NFA, TEF-2, NF1, and AP-1 participate in epithelial cell-specific transcription
Authors: Chong, T. 
Apt, D. 
Gloss, B. 
Isa, M. 
Bernard, H.-U. 
Issue Date: Nov-1991
Citation: Chong, T.,Apt, D.,Gloss, B.,Isa, M.,Bernard, H.-U. (1991-11). The enhancer of human papillomavirus type 16: Binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factors oct-1, NFA, TEF-2, NF1, and AP-1 participate in epithelial cell-specific transcription. Journal of Virology 65 (11) : 5933-5943. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The enhancer of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is considered to be specific for epithelial cells, in particular for cervical carcinoma-derived cell lines. We reexamined this hypothesis with the complete enhancer as well as nonoverlapping subclones and found all clones to be active in epithelial cell lines derived from the epidermis and from carcinomas of the cervix, mammary gland, and colon, but inactive in fibroblast, lymphoma, and embryonal carcinoma cells. Although the virus infects only human mucosal epithelia, enhancer activity was independent of the exact type or of the species of origin of the transfected epithelial cell. In spite of epithelial cell specificity, we found that the activity of the HPV-16 enhancer varied strongly from a cytomegalovirus enhancer and the simian virus 40 enhancer in a cell line-dependent manner. This suggests varying quantitative contributions of enhancer elements rather than regulation by an all-or-none switch. Cell type specificity was maintained by a 91-bp subclone of the 400-bp enhancer. Most of the enhancer activity of this fragment was eliminated by alternative mutations in binding sites for the ubiquitous factors AP-1, nuclear factor 1 (NF1), or TEF-2. These three types of factors bind this 91-bp enhancer without cooperation, although activation appears to be synergistic. Outside the 91-bp fragment, a motif typical for papillomavirus enhancers, namely an octamerlike sequence flanked by an NF1-binding site, contributes to enhancer function, as the activity was strongly reduced upon its deletion. In HPV-16, this motif is bound by the oct-1 factor as well as by a probably novel factor, NFA, whereas a related motif of HPV-11 is recognized only by NFA. On examination, none of the five types of transcription factors involved in HPV enhancer activation was restricted to epithelial cells, but NF1, AP-1, and oct-1 were present in higher concentration in HeLa cells than in fibroblasts. Only NF1 showed some qualitative cell type-specific differences. We propose that the epithelial specificity of the HPV-16 enhancer is brought about via binding sites for supposed ubiquitous transcription factors. The mechanism of this activation apparently involves synergism between factors that vary in concentration and may include cell-specific functional differences residing outside the DNA-binding domain of these factors.
Source Title: Journal of Virology
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/112110
ISSN: 0022538X
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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