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|Title:||Barnacle cement: A polymerization model based on evolutionary concepts||Authors:||Dickinson, G.H.
Trypsin-like serine protease
|Issue Date:||1-Nov-2009||Citation:||Dickinson, G.H., Vega, I.E., Wahl, K.J., Orihuela, B., Beyley, V., Rodriguez, E.N., Everett, R.K., Bonaventura, J., Rittschof, D. (2009-11-01). Barnacle cement: A polymerization model based on evolutionary concepts. Journal of Experimental Biology 212 (21) : 3499-3510. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.029884||Abstract:||Enzymes and biochemical mechanisms essential to survival are under extreme selective pressure and are highly conserved through evolutionary time. We applied this evolutionary concept to barnacle cement polymerization, a process critical to barnacle fitness that involves aggregation and cross-linking of proteins. The biochemical mechanisms of cement polymerization remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that this process is biochemically similar to blood clotting, a critical physiological response that is also based on aggregation and cross-linking of proteins. Like key elements of vertebrate and invertebrate blood clotting, barnacle cement polymerization was shown to involve proteolytic activation of enzymes and structural precursors, transglutaminase cross-linking and assembly of fibrous proteins. Proteolytic activation of structural proteins maximizes the potential for bonding interactions with other proteins and with the surface. Transglutaminase cross-linking reinforces cement integrity. Remarkably, epitopes and sequences homologous to bovine trypsin and human transglutaminase were identified in barnacle cement with tandem mass spectrometry and/or western blotting. Akin to blood clotting, the peptides generated during proteolytic activation functioned as signal molecules, linking a molecular level event (protein aggregation) to a behavioral response (barnacle larval settlement). Our results draw attention to a highly conserved protein polymerization mechanism and shed light on a long-standing biochemical puzzle. We suggest that barnacle cement polymerization is a specialized form of wound healing. The polymerization mechanism common between barnacle cement and blood may be a theme for many marine animal glues.||Source Title:||Journal of Experimental Biology||URI:||http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/110842||ISSN:||00220949||DOI:||10.1242/jeb.029884|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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