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Title: Direct costs of myopia in Singapore
Authors: Lim, M.C.C.
Gazzard, G.
Sim, E.-L.
Tong, L.
Saw, S.-M. 
Keywords: Cost of illness
Issue Date: May-2009
Citation: Lim, M.C.C., Gazzard, G., Sim, E.-L., Tong, L., Saw, S.-M. (2009-05). Direct costs of myopia in Singapore. Eye 23 (5) : 1086-1089. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Aims To estimate the direct costs of myopia in Singapore children. Methods A cross-sectional study of 377 Singaporean school children aged 12-17 years from one school in Singapore Cohort study of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM) was conducted. A combination of parent and self-administered questionnaires asked about the cost of each optometrist visit, spectacles, and contact lenses, transport costs, father's educational level, and total family income. Results A total of 377 subjects participated and cost data were available from 301 subjects. The mean annual direct cost of myopia was S221. ± 7313.7 (CI, S$186.5-258.1) or US$147.8 ± 209.1 (CI, US$124.3-172.1) and median annual direct cost of myopia was S$125.0 or US83.3. The mean cost per pair of spectacles was S$123.2 ± 61.2 (CI, S$116.6-129.8) or US$82.1 ± 40.8 (CI, US$77.8-86.5). Sixty subjects (15.9%) wore contact lenses. Conclusions The mean annual cost of contact lenses was S567.1565.7 (CI, S$422.2-712.0) or US$378.1 ± 377.1 (CI, US$281.4-474.6). Subjects of families with higher total family income and those with fathers with secondary or higher education had higher annual direct expenditure (P0.03 and P0.001 respectively). Subjects from families with higher household incomes had higher frequency of change of spectacles (P0.02) and shorter time since the last change of spectacles (P0.03). The mean annual direct cost of myopia for Singapore school children was S$221.68 (US$148) and the median, S$125.00 (US$83.33) per subject. Myopia is associated with significant financial burden in Singapore. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
Source Title: Eye
ISSN: 0950222X
DOI: 10.1038/eye.2008.225
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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