Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-48
Title: Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study
Authors: Naidoo, N. 
Chen, C.
Rebello, S.A. 
Speer, K.
Tai, E.S.
Lee, J. 
Buchmann, S.
Koelling-Speer, I.
Van Dam, R.M. 
Issue Date: 2011
Citation: Naidoo, N., Chen, C., Rebello, S.A., Speer, K., Tai, E.S., Lee, J., Buchmann, S., Koelling-Speer, I., Van Dam, R.M. (2011). Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study. Nutrition Journal 10 (1) : -. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-48
Abstract: Background: To measure the content of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee sold at the retailer level in Singapore, Indonesia and India and to determine the relationship of coffee consumption with lipid levels in a population-based study in Singapore. Methods. Survey and cross-sectional study in local coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India to measure the diterpene content in coffee, and a population-based study in Singapore to examine the relationship of coffee consumption and blood lipid levels. Interviews and coffee samples (n = 27) were collected from coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India. In addition, 3000 men and women who were Chinese, Malay, and Indian residents of Singapore participated in a cross-sectional study. Results and Discussion. The traditional 'sock' method of coffee preparation used in Singapore resulted in cafestol concentrations comparable to European paper drip filtered coffee (mean 0.09 SD 0.064 mg/cup). This amount would result in negligible predicted increases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Similarly low amounts of cafestol were found in Indian 'filter' coffee that used a metal mesh filter (0.05 0.05 mg/cup). Coffee samples from Indonesia using the 'sock' method (0.85 0.41 mg/cup) or a metal mesh filter (0.98 mg/cup) contained higher amounts of cafestol comparable to espresso coffee. Unfiltered coffee from Indonesia contained an amount of cafestol (4.43 mg/cup) similar to Scandinavian boiled, Turkish and French press coffee with substantial predicted increases in serum cholesterol (0.33 mmol/l) and triglycerides (0.20 mmol/l) concentrations for consumption of 5 cups per day. In the Singaporean population, higher coffee consumption was not substantially associated with serum lipid concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [LDL-cholesterol: 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.97-3.18) for
Source Title: Nutrition Journal
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/108655
ISSN: 14752891
DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-48
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