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Title: Influence of pre-hypertension on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: The Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study
Authors: Lee, J. 
Heng, D.
Ma, S.
Chew, S.-K.
Hughes, K.
Tai, E.-S.
Keywords: Asian
Cardiovascular risk factors
Issue Date: 10-Jul-2009
Citation: Lee, J., Heng, D., Ma, S., Chew, S.-K., Hughes, K., Tai, E.-S. (2009-07-10). Influence of pre-hypertension on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: The Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study. International Journal of Cardiology 135 (3) : 331-337. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: The effect of "pre-hypertension" (pre-HTN) itself, and in combination with other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in relation to mortality has not been assessed in Asian populations. Methods: From three cross-sectional studies conducted in Singapore (baseline 1982-1995), 5830 persons were grouped into normotensive (NT), pre-HTN or hypertensive (HTN). Follow-up (median 12.0 yrs, IQR 12-19 yrs) was done by linkage to the National Death Register. Outcomes included all-cause and CVD (ischaemic heart disease (ICD-9 410-414) and cerebrovascular accidents (ICD-9 430-438)). Cox's proportional hazards model was used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of mortality. Results: After adjustment, pre-HTN was not associated with a statistically significant increased risk of all-cause or CVD mortality. However, an increased risk for all-cause and CVD mortality, in the presence of diabetes (adjusted HR 1.8; 95%CI 1.0-2.9 and 4.4; 95%CI 1.9-10.4), smoking (adjusted HR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3-3.5 and 4.9; 95%CI 1.8-13.3), and especially, pre-existing CVD (adjusted HR 3.1; 95%CI 1.5-6.4 and 9.3; 95%CI 3.3-25.9) was found. Conclusions: Pre-HTN was not an independent risk factor for mortality. However an increased risk of mortality for pre-HTN in the presence of other CVD risk factors was observed. This finding supports current recommendations to screen for these risk factors in the pre-HTN Asian population. © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: International Journal of Cardiology
ISSN: 01675273
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.03.067
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