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Title: Invariant Manifolds for Steady Boltzmann Flows and Applications
Authors: Liu, T.-P.
Yu, S.-H. 
Issue Date: Sep-2013
Citation: Liu, T.-P., Yu, S.-H. (2013-09). Invariant Manifolds for Steady Boltzmann Flows and Applications. Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis 209 (3) : 869-997. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: We develop a theory of invariant manifolds for the steady Boltzmann equation and apply it to the study of boundary layers and nonlinear waves. The steady Boltzmann equation is an infinite dimensional differential equation, so the standard center manifold theory for differential equations based on spectral information does not apply here. Instead, we employ a time-asymptotic approach using the pointwise information of Green's function for the construction of the linear invariant manifolds. At the resonance cases when the Mach number at the far field is around one of the critical values of -1, 0 or 1, the truly nonlinear theory arises. In such a case, there are wave patterns combining the fast decaying Knudsen-type and slow varying fluid-like waves. The key Knudsen manifolds consisting of only Knudsentype layers are constructed through delicate analysis of identifying the singular behavior around the critical Mach numbers. Around Mach number ± 1, the fluidlike waves are compressive and expansive waves; and around the Mach number 0, they are linear thermal layers. The quantitative analysis of the fluid-like waves is done using the reduction of dimensions to the center manifolds.Two-scale nonlinear dynamics based on those on the Knudsen and center manifolds are formulated for the study of the global dynamics of the combined wave patterns. There are striking bifurcations in the transition of evaporation to condensation and in the transition of the Milne's problem with a subsonic far field to one with a supersonic far field. The analysis of these wave patterns allows us to understand the Sone Diagram for the study of the complete condensation boundary value problem. The monotonicity of the Boltzmann shock profiles, a problem that initially motivated the present study, is shown as a consequence of the quantitative analysis of the nonlinear fluid-like waves. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Source Title: Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
ISSN: 00039527
DOI: 10.1007/s00205-013-0640-x
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