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Title: SARM: a novel Toll-like receptor adaptor, is functionally conserved from arthropod to human
Authors: Belinda, L.W.-C. 
Wei, W.X. 
Hanh, B.T.H.
Lei, L.X.
Bow, H.
Ling, D.J. 
Keywords: Immunomodulation
Innate immune response
Interaction partners
Sterile-alpha and Armadillo motif protein
TLR signaling
Issue Date: Mar-2008
Citation: Belinda, L.W.-C., Wei, W.X., Hanh, B.T.H., Lei, L.X., Bow, H., Ling, D.J. (2008-03). SARM: a novel Toll-like receptor adaptor, is functionally conserved from arthropod to human. Molecular Immunology 45 (6) : 1732-1742. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Sterile-alpha and Armadillo motif containing protein (SARM) was recently identified as the fifth member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor family. Whilst the Caenorhabditis elegans SARM homologue, TIR-1, is crucial for efficient immune responses against bacterial infections, human SARM was demonstrated to function as a specific inhibitor of TRIF-dependent TLR signaling. The opposing role of SARM in C. elegans and human is intriguing, prompting us to seek clarification on the enigmatic function of SARM in an ancient species which relies solely on innate immunity for survival. Here, we report the discovery of a primitive but functional SARM (CrSARM) in the immune defense of a "living fossil", the horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. CrSARM shares numerous signature motifs and displays significant homology with vertebrate and invertebrate SARM homologues. CrSARM downregulates TRIF-dependent TLR signaling suggesting the conservation of SARM function from horseshoe crab to human. During infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, CrSARM is rapidly upregulated within 3 h and strongly repressed at 6 h, coinciding with the timing of bacterial clearance, thus demonstrating its dynamic role in innate immunity. Furthermore, yeast-two-hybrid screening revealed several potential interaction partners of CrSARM implying the role of SARM in downregulating TLR signaling events. Altogether, our study shows that, although C. elegans SARM upregulates immune signaling, its disparate role as a suppressor of TLR signaling, specifically via TRIF and not MyD88, is well-conserved from horseshoe crab to human. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Molecular Immunology
ISSN: 01615890
DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2007.09.030
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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