Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00613-09
Title: Proteolytic activation of the spike protein at a novel RRRR/S motif is implicated in furin-dependent entry, syncytium formation, and infectivity of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cultured cells
Authors: Yamada, Y.
Ding, X.L. 
Issue Date: 2009
Citation: Yamada, Y., Ding, X.L. (2009). Proteolytic activation of the spike protein at a novel RRRR/S motif is implicated in furin-dependent entry, syncytium formation, and infectivity of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cultured cells. Journal of Virology 83 (17) : 8744-8758. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00613-09
Abstract: The spike (S) protein of the coronavirus (CoV) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is cleaved into S1 and S2 subunits at the furin consensus motif RRFRR 537/S in virus-infected cells. In this study, we observe that the S2 subunit of the IBV Beaudette strain is additionally cleaved at the second furin site (RRRR690/S) in cells expressing S constructs and in virus-infected cells. Detailed time course experiments showed that a peptide furin inhibitor, decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone, blocked both viral entry and syncytium formation. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that the S1/S2 cleavage by furin was not necessary for, but could promote, syncytium formation by and infectivity of IBV in Vero cells. In contrast, the second site is involved in the furin dependence of viral entry and syncytium formation. Mutations of the second site from furin-cleavable RRRR/S to non-furin-cleavable PRRRS and AAARS, respectively, abrogated the furin dependence of IBV entry. Instead, a yet-to-be-identified serine protease(s) was involved, as revealed by protease inhibitor studies. Furthermore, sequence analysis of CoV S proteins by multiple alignments showed conservation of an XXXR/S motif, cleavable by either furin or other trypsin-like proteases, at a position equivalent to the second IBV furin site. Taken together, these results suggest that proteolysis at a novel XXXR/S motif in the S2 subunit might be a common mechanism for the entry of CoV into cells. Copyright © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Virology
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/101480
ISSN: 0022538X
DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00613-09
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