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Title: Nuclear microscopy: A novel technique for quantitative imaging of gadolinium Distribution within Tissue Sections
Authors: Rajendran, R. 
Ronald, J.A.
Ye, T.
Minqin, R. 
Chen, J.W.
Weissleder, R.
Rutt, B.K.
Halliwell, B.
Watt, F. 
Keywords: Atherosclerosis
Magnetic resonance imaging
Nuclear microscopy
Issue Date: Aug-2009
Source: Rajendran, R., Ronald, J.A., Ye, T., Minqin, R., Chen, J.W., Weissleder, R., Rutt, B.K., Halliwell, B., Watt, F. (2009-08). Nuclear microscopy: A novel technique for quantitative imaging of gadolinium Distribution within Tissue Sections. Microscopy and Microanalysis 15 (4) : 338-344. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: All clinically-approved and many novel gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents used to enhance signal intensity in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are optically silent. To verify MRI results, a gold standard that can map and quantify Gd down to the parts per million (ppm) levels is required. Nuclear microscopy is a relatively new technique that has this capability and is composed of a combination of three ion beam techniques: scanning transmission ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and particle induced X-ray emission used in conjunction with a high energy proton microprobe. In this proof-of-concept study, we show that in diseased aortic vessel walls obtained at 2 and 4 h after intravenous injection of the myeloperoxidase-senstitive MRI agent, bis-5-hydroxytryptamide-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate gadolinium, there was a time-dependant Gd clearance (2 h = 18.86 ppm, 4 h = 8.65 ppm). As expected, the control animal, injected with the clinically-approved conventional agent diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate gadolinium and sacrificed 1 week after injection, revealed no significant residual Gd in the tissue. Similar to known in vivo Gd pharmacokinetics, we found that Gd concentration dropped by a factor of 2 in vessel wall tissue in 1.64 h. Further high-resolution studies revealed that Gd was relatively uniformly distributed, consistent with random agent diffusion. We conclude that nuclear microscopy is potentially very useful for validation studies involving Gd-based magnetic resonance contrast agents. © Microscopy Society of America 2009.
Source Title: Microscopy and Microanalysis
ISSN: 14319276
DOI: 10.1017/S1431927609090813
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