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|Title:||Substituent-dependent structures and catalysis of benzimidazole-tethered N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of Ag(i), Ni(ii) and Pd(ii)|
|Authors:||Li, F. |
|Citation:||Li, F., Hu, J.J., Koh, L.L., Hor, T.S.A. (2010). Substituent-dependent structures and catalysis of benzimidazole-tethered N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of Ag(i), Ni(ii) and Pd(ii). Dalton Transactions 39 (22) : 5231-5241. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1039/c000722f|
|Abstract:||Homoleptic cationic benzimidazole-imidazolin-2-ylidene N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC = L) complexes of NiII and PdII have been prepared directly from the ligand precursor in salt form [H.L]Cl and from the transmetallation route via AgI. The N-tether of the imidazolinylidene ring imposes a significant influence on the nuclearity of the intermediate Ag(i)-NHC complexes and the geometric isomer outcome of the d8 products. Use of a benzyl-substituted NHC gives [Ag4(L Bn)2Cl4], 2a (from [HLBn]Cl, 1a, and Ag2O) (Bn = benzyl), which shows an alignment of four silver atoms bridged by the difunctional C-N ligands and chlorides. Its transmetallation with NiCl2(PPh3)4 and PdCl2(MeCN) 2 results in double-metal salts 2[M(LBn)2] 2+[Ag4Cl8]4- (M = Ni (3a) and Pd (4a)). The nuclearity of the Ag4 aggregate is maintained in the transmetallation process. Their Ag-free forms [M(LBn) 2]Cl2 (M = Ni (5) and Pd (6)) were prepared by direct deprotonation of 1a with M(OAc)2. The two carbenic carbon donor are cis- to each other in both 3a and 4a, thus imposing the weaker σ-benzimidazole nitrogen donor to be trans to them. A sterically demanding mesityl pendant however gives the dinuclear dissymmetic [Ag2(L Mes)2Cl2], 2b (Mes = mesityl) that shows a 12-membered metallomacrocyclic ring with a 2-coordinated [AgI(NHC) 2] and 4-coordinated [AgI(Imd)2Cl2] (Imd = imidazole). Transmetallation of the latter, or direct metallation from [HLMes]Cl, 1b, gives [M(LMes)2]Cl2 (M = Ni (3b) and Pd (4b)) with the two carbonic carbon trans to each other. The catalytic potential of 3b and 4b, which are more effective than 5 and 6, has been demonstrated by their high activities in Ni-catalyzed Kumada at room temperature and Pd-catalyzed Heck couplings of aryl and/or heteroaryl halides, respectively. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.|
|Source Title:||Dalton Transactions|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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