Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.032
Title: Orthogonal array designs for the optimization of liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection
Authors: Wu, J.
Lee, H.K. 
Keywords: Liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction
Liquid-phase microextraction
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Optimization
Orthogonal array design
Water analysis
Issue Date: 28-Oct-2005
Source: Wu, J., Lee, H.K. (2005-10-28). Orthogonal array designs for the optimization of liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Journal of Chromatography A 1092 (2) : 182-190. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.032
Abstract: Orthogonal array designs (OADs) were applied for the first time to optimize liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME) conditions for the analysis of three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug residues (2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2- methylpropionic acid, ketoprofen, and naproxen) in wastewater samples. Six relevant factors were investigated: type of organic solvent, composition of donor phase and acceptor phase, stirring speed, extraction time and salt concentration. In the first stage, mixed-level orthogonal array design, an OA16 (41 × 212) matrix was employed to study the effect of six factors, by which the effect of each factor was estimated using individual contributions as response functions. Based on the results of the first stage, 1-octanol was chosen as organic solvent for extraction. The other five factors were selected for further optimization using an OA16 (45) matrix and a 4 x 4 table to locate more exact levels for each variable. The relative standard deviations for the reproducibility of optimized LLLME varied from 6.2 to 7.1%. The coefficients of determination for calibration curves were higher than 0.9950. The method detection limits for drugs spiked in ultrapure water were in the range of 0.03-0.3 ng/mL. The final optimized conditions were applied to the analysis of drug residues in three wastewater samples in Singapore. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Chromatography A
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/94461
ISSN: 00219673
DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.032
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

Show full item record
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

SCOPUSTM   
Citations

40
checked on Mar 5, 2018

WEB OF SCIENCETM
Citations

38
checked on Mar 5, 2018

Page view(s)

20
checked on Apr 20, 2018

Google ScholarTM

Check

Altmetric


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.