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|Title:||Orthogonal array designs for the optimization of liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection|
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Orthogonal array design
|Citation:||Wu, J., Lee, H.K. (2005-10-28). Orthogonal array designs for the optimization of liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Journal of Chromatography A 1092 (2) : 182-190. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.07.032|
|Abstract:||Orthogonal array designs (OADs) were applied for the first time to optimize liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (LLLME) conditions for the analysis of three nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug residues (2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2- methylpropionic acid, ketoprofen, and naproxen) in wastewater samples. Six relevant factors were investigated: type of organic solvent, composition of donor phase and acceptor phase, stirring speed, extraction time and salt concentration. In the first stage, mixed-level orthogonal array design, an OA16 (41 × 212) matrix was employed to study the effect of six factors, by which the effect of each factor was estimated using individual contributions as response functions. Based on the results of the first stage, 1-octanol was chosen as organic solvent for extraction. The other five factors were selected for further optimization using an OA16 (45) matrix and a 4 x 4 table to locate more exact levels for each variable. The relative standard deviations for the reproducibility of optimized LLLME varied from 6.2 to 7.1%. The coefficients of determination for calibration curves were higher than 0.9950. The method detection limits for drugs spiked in ultrapure water were in the range of 0.03-0.3 ng/mL. The final optimized conditions were applied to the analysis of drug residues in three wastewater samples in Singapore. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.|
|Source Title:||Journal of Chromatography A|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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