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Title: Long-term responses of canine lungs to acidic particles responses to acidic particles
Authors: Heyder, J.
Beck-Speier, I.
Ferron, G.A.
Josten, M.
Karg, E.
Kreyling, W.G.
Lenz, A.-G.
Maier, K.L.
Reitmeier, P.
Ruprecht, L.
Takenaka, S.
Wohland, T. 
Ziesenis, A.
Schulz, H.
Keywords: Acidic particles
Chronic exposure
Inhalation risk
Issue Date: 2009
Citation: Heyder, J., Beck-Speier, I., Ferron, G.A., Josten, M., Karg, E., Kreyling, W.G., Lenz, A.-G., Maier, K.L., Reitmeier, P., Ruprecht, L., Takenaka, S., Wohland, T., Ziesenis, A., Schulz, H. (2009). Long-term responses of canine lungs to acidic particles responses to acidic particles. Inhalation Toxicology 21 (11) : 920-932. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Sixteen beagle dogs were housed in four large chambers under minimum restraint. They were exposed for 16 months to clean air and individual baseline data of markers were obtained. For 13 months, eight dogs were further exposed to clean air and eight dogs for 6h/d to 1-μm MMAD (mass median aerodynamic diameter) acidic sulfate particles carrying 25μmol H+ m -3 into their lungs. To establish functional responses (lung function, cell and tissue integrity, redox balance, and non-specific respiratory defense capacity), each exposed animal served as its own control. To establish structural responses, the eight non-exposed animals served as controls. Acidic particles were produced by nebulization of aqueous sodium hydrogen sulfate at pH 1.5. Only subtle exposure-related changes of lung function and structure were detected. A significant increase in respiratory burst function of alveolar macrophages points to a marginal inflammatory response. This can be explained by the significant production of prostaglandin E2, activating cyclooxygenase- dependent mechanisms in epithelia and thus inhibiting lung inflammation. The non-specific defense capacity was slightly affected, giving increased tracheal mucus velocity and reduced in vivo dissolution of moderately soluble test particles. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bronchial epithelia were not observed, but there was an increase in volume density of bronchial glands and a shift from neutral to acidic staining of epithelial secretory cells in distal airways. The acidic exposure had thus no pathophysiological consequences. It is therefore unlikely that long-term inhalation of acidic particles is associated with a health risk. © 2009 Informa UK Ltd.
Source Title: Inhalation Toxicology
ISSN: 08958378
DOI: 10.1080/08958370802651994
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