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Title: Persistent organic pollutants in Singapore's coastal marine environment: Part II, sediments
Authors: Basheer, C. 
Obbard, J.P. 
Lee, H.K. 
Keywords: Marine sediments
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Soxhlet extration
Issue Date: Oct-2003
Citation: Basheer, C., Obbard, J.P., Lee, H.K. (2003-10). Persistent organic pollutants in Singapore's coastal marine environment: Part II, sediments. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 149 (1-4) : 315-325. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can enter the marine environment from a variety of anthropogenic sources. As some PAHs are known or suspected carcinogens and mutagens, their potential hazard to human health and the natural environment warrants investigation. This is the first reported study on the prevalence and concentration of PAHs in marine sediments from Singapore's coastal environment, and accompanies the report by Basheer et al. (2003) on the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in seawater. The concentration of 16 PAH, classified as USEPA priority pollutants were analysed in sediments from 22 sample stations located within the northeastern and southwestern regions of Singapore's marine waters. The total PAH concentration varied between 15.22 μg g-1 and 82.41 μg g-1 in the northeastern region and between 13.63 μg g-1 and 84.92 μg g-1 in the southwestern region. The highest concentration of total PAH i.e. 84.92 μg g-1 was recorded at a site adjacent to a petrochemical refinery. Among the sixteen individual PAHs, chrysene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene were most prevalent in the sediments. The relatively low kinetic/thermodynamic isomer ratios for PAHs suggest that PAHs of pyrogenic origin are predominant in Singapore's coastal environment. The distribution of higher molecular weight i.e. (4-5 ring) individual PAHs corresponded to mixture profiles typical of those originating from high temperature combustion processes subjected to photolytic degradation during long-range atmospheric transportation. A comparison of total PAH concentration data for sediments collected from Singapore relative to those reported for other countries indicates a moderate level of PAH contamination in Singapore's coastal marine sediments.
Source Title: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
ISSN: 00496979
DOI: 10.1023/A:1025673517831
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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