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Title: Electroless plating of palladium and copper on polypyrrole films
Authors: Lim, V.W.L.
Kang, E.T. 
Neoh, K.G. 
Keywords: Copper
Electroless plating
Intrinsic oxidation states
Issue Date: 22-Aug-2001
Citation: Lim, V.W.L., Kang, E.T., Neoh, K.G. (2001-08-22). Electroless plating of palladium and copper on polypyrrole films. Synthetic Metals 123 (1) : 107-115. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A novel process for the metallization of polypyrrole (PPY) film surface through consecutive electroless plating of palladium and copper in the complete absence of the SnCl2 sensitization step was demonstrated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was used to characterize the polymer surface at each stage of the metallization process. It was found that only the fully reduced PPY film could reduce palladium ions to palladium metal (Pd(0)) in substantial amounts from either the Pd(NO3)2 or PdCl2 acid solution. The palladium metal was necessary for catalyzing the subsequent electroless plating of copper. The reduction of Pd(II) ions in acid solution to Pd(0) on the film surface was accompanied by a simultaneous increase in intrinsic oxidation state and doping level of the film. The copper plating process after the palladium uptake step was highly dependent on the [Pd]/[N] ratio on the film. Through XPS and Auger photoeletron spectroscopy measurements, it was postulated that during the electroless copper plating process, the Cu(II) ions were first reduced to Cu(I) on the PPY film surface before complete reduction to copper metal. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights rserved.
Source Title: Synthetic Metals
ISSN: 03796779
DOI: 10.1016/S0379-6779(00)00592-0
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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