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Title: Comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols in Singapore
Authors: Balasubramanian, R. 
Qian, W.-B.
Decesari, S.
Facchini, M.C.
Fuzzi, S.
Keywords: Aerosols
Atmospheric particulate matter
Biomass burning
Issue Date: 27-Aug-2003
Source: Balasubramanian, R.,Qian, W.-B.,Decesari, S.,Facchini, M.C.,Fuzzi, S. (2003-08-27). Comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols in Singapore. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres 108 (16) : AAC 7-1. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols collected in Singapore from January through December 2000 is presented. The annual average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 27.2 μg/m3. The atmospheric loading of PM2.5 was elevated sporadically from March through May, mainly due to advection of biomass burning (deliberate fires to clear plantation areas) impacted air masses from Sumatra, Indonesia. Satellite images of the area, trajectory calculations, and surface wind direction data are in support of the transport of pyrogenic products from Sumatra toward Singapore. Aerosol samples collected during the dry season were analyzed for water-soluble ions, water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon, and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques. The major components were sulfate, EC, water-soluble carbonaceous materials, and water-insoluble carbonaceous materials. Aerosol WSOC were characterized based on a combination of chromatographic separations by ion exchange chromatography, functional group investigation by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and total organic carbon determination. The comprehensive chemical characterization of PM2.5 particles revealed that both non-sea-salt sufate (nss-SO4 2-) and carbonaceous aerosols mainly contributed to the increase in the mass concentration of aerosols during the smoke haze period. Using a mass closure test (a mass balance), we determined whether the physical measurement of gravimetric fine PM concentration of a sample is equal to the summed concentrations of the individually identified chemical constituents (measured or inferred) in the sample. The sum of the determined groups of aerosol components and the gravimetrically determined mass agreed reasonably well. Principal component analysis was performed from the combined data set, and five factors were observed: a soil dust component, a metallurgical industry factor, a factor representing emissions from biomass burning and automobiles, a sea-salt component, and an oil combustion factor. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.
Source Title: Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres
ISSN: 01480227
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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