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Title: Surveillance of enteric viruses and coliphages in a tropical urban catchment
Authors: Rezaeinejad, S.
Vergara, G.G.R.V.
Woo, C.H.
Lim, T.T.
Sobsey, M.D.
Gin, K.Y.H. 
Keywords: Coliphages
Enteric viruses
Quantitative PCR
Recreational water quality
Urban catchment
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2014
Citation: Rezaeinejad, S., Vergara, G.G.R.V., Woo, C.H., Lim, T.T., Sobsey, M.D., Gin, K.Y.H. (2014-07-01). Surveillance of enteric viruses and coliphages in a tropical urban catchment. Water Research 58 : 122-131. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: An assessment of the occurrence and concentration of enteric viruses and coliphages was carried out in highly urbanized catchment waters in the tropical city-state of Singapore. Target enteric viruses in this study were noroviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses and rotaviruses. In total, 65 water samples were collected from canals and the reservoir of the Marina catchment on a monthly basis over a period of a year. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and single agar layer plaque assay (SAL) were used to enumerate target enteric viruses and coliphages in water samples, respectively. The most prevalent pathogen were noroviruses, detected in 37 samples (57%), particularly norovirus genogroup II (48%), with a mean concentration of 3.7×102 gene copies per liter. Rotavirus was the second most prevalent virus (40%) with a mean concentration of 2.5×102GC/L. The mean concentrations of somatic and male-specific coliphages were 2.2×102 and 1.1×102PFU/100ml, respectively. The occurrence and concentration of each target virus and the ratio of somatic to male-specific coliphages varied at different sampling sites in the catchment. For sampling sites with higher frequency of occurrence and concentration of viruses, the ratio of somatic to male-specific coliphages was generally much lower than other sampling sites with lower incidences of enteric viruses. Overall, higher statistical correlation was observed between target enteric viruses than between enteric viruses and coliphages. However, male-specific coliphages were positively correlated with norovirus concentrations. A multi-level integrated surveillance system, which comprises the monitoring of bacterial indicators, coliphages and selected enteric viruses, could help to meet recreational and surface water quality criteria in a complex urbanized catchment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Source Title: Water Research
ISSN: 18792448
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.051
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