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|Title:||Characterization of fine particle emissions from incense burning|
Health risk assessment
Indoor air quality
|Citation:||See, S.W., Balasubramanian, R. (2011-05). Characterization of fine particle emissions from incense burning. Building and Environment 46 (5) : 1074-1080. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.11.006|
|Abstract:||Incense burning is an important indoor source of airborne particles. In this study, the emission factors of PM2.5 and its chemical constituents emitted from six different brands of incense sticks were determined. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM2.5 and to determine its chemical composition (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), metals, and ions). Measurements showed that the emissions vary for different brands of incense sticks, with smokeless incense sticks emitting the least amount. PM2.5 emission factors range from 0.4 (smokeless incense stick) to 44.5 mg/g. Results also show that the amount of metals emitted is highly dependent on the quantity of metals present in the incense sticks. In addition, the information obtained from the controlled experiments is used to predict the concentration of PM2.5 at incense smoke-influenced microenvironments, such as temples and homes, in order to assess the potential indoor exposure during the course of incense burning. Comparison with indoor air quality guidelines suggests that inhalation of incense smoke can pose adverse health impacts. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.|
|Source Title:||Building and Environment|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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