Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1039/b407523d
Title: Characterization and source identification of airborne trace metals in Singapore
Authors: Balasubramanian, R. 
Qian, W.-B.
Issue Date: Oct-2004
Citation: Balasubramanian, R., Qian, W.-B. (2004-10). Characterization and source identification of airborne trace metals in Singapore. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 6 (10) : 813-818. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1039/b407523d
Abstract: Airborne particulate trace metals have important health implications. As a consequence, their concentrations are increasingly monitored in many urban locations worldwide. In this study, fine atmospheric particles (PM 2.5) were collected in Singapore over a period of 83 consecutive days during 2000, and analysed to determine the concentration of trace elements using ICP-MS. Altogether, eighteen airborne trace metals were quantified: Al, Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, V, Si, and Ti. While Li was the least abundant trace metal with a mean concentration of 0.2 ng m -3, Zn showed the maximum mean concentration of 279.1 ng m -3. Calculation of enrichment factors indicated that the elements Pb, Zn, Cd, V, Ni, Cr, and Cu were enriched by factors of 30 to 5000 relative to their natural abundance in crustal soil. The extent of metal pollution in the study area was assessed by comparing the measured concentrations to those reported in the literature for a selected number of urban sites in other parts of the world. Factor analysis was used to identify the major sources affecting particulate air pollution in Singapore. The sources that contribute to the loading of trace metal-bearing aerosols in the Singapore urban atmosphere include fuel oil-fired power plants, metal processing industry, land reclamation and construction activities, municipal solid waste incinerators, and traffic emissions.
Source Title: Journal of Environmental Monitoring
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/88634
ISSN: 14640325
DOI: 10.1039/b407523d
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