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|Title:||Why Singapore's land transportation energy consumption is relatively low|
|Authors:||Ang, B.W |
Transportation energy consumption
|Citation:||Ang, B.W,Tan, K.C (2001-05). Why Singapore's land transportation energy consumption is relatively low. Natural Resources Forum 25 (2) : 135-146. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||Since the early 1970s, Singapore has enacted a number of measures to tackle traffic congestion, including measures to restrain vehicle ownership. Although Singapore's per capita GDP is comparable to that of OECD countries, the present car-ownership level in Singapore (10 cars per 100 people) is only a fraction of levels in the OECD countries. Traffic flow in this city-State is relatively smooth, even during peak hours. Although the measures taken were aimed primarily at tackling traffic congestion, they have had other positive impacts, such as reducing energy consumption, air pollution and CO2 emissions. This article presents an overview of the transportation measures and initiatives in Singapore, and analyses two of the transport demand management measures in detail: the vehicle restraint measure, in particular the unique vehicle quota system introduced in 1990; and the two road pricing systems, i.e. the area licensing scheme (ALS) that operated from 1974 to 1998, and the electronic road pricing system (ERP) that went into operation in 1998. Energy and environmental impacts are then discussed, and finally factors contributing to the success of these schemes. Although certain conditions are unique to Singapore, the experience shows that substantial energy and environmental benefits can be achieved through managing urban transportation system in an integrated and innovative way. © 2001 United Nations. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Source Title:||Natural Resources Forum|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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