Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ra01110g
Title: Nano LiMn 2O 4 with spherical morphology synthesized by a molten salt method as cathodes for lithium ion batteries
Authors: Zhao, X.
Reddy, M.V. 
Liu, H.
Ramakrishna, S. 
Rao, G.V.S.
Chowdari, B.V.R. 
Issue Date: 7-Sep-2012
Source: Zhao, X., Reddy, M.V., Liu, H., Ramakrishna, S., Rao, G.V.S., Chowdari, B.V.R. (2012-09-07). Nano LiMn 2O 4 with spherical morphology synthesized by a molten salt method as cathodes for lithium ion batteries. RSC Advances 2 (19) : 7462-7469. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ra01110g
Abstract: The compound, LiMn 2O 4 is synthesized by a one-pot molten salt method using NaCl-KCl (1:1) as the eutectic melt at various temperatures (T) from 700 to 850 °C and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rietveld refinement, surface area and density methods. SEM showed that all the spinel phases LiMn 2O 4 consist of 1-5 μm sized spherical particles, each of which is composed of ∼50 nm nano-sized aggregates. TEM images show spherical particles with hollow type morphology when the synthesis T is above 800 °C. The cubic lattice parameter, 8.235 (±0.002) Å did not vary much with the T in the range 700-850 °C, which is proven by the similar Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ amount through XPS results, whereas the surface area varied from 15.6 to 10.3 m 2 g -1. The cyclic voltammograms showed the characteristic two-step redox peaks at 3.9/4.1 and 4.1/4.2 V vs. Li for all the compounds in agreement with literature reports. Galvanostatic cycling studies were carried out in the range, 3.5 to 4.3 V vs. Li showed that the LiMn 2O 4 prepared at 800 °C has the highest discharge capacity of 124 mAh g -1 at second cycle at 0.25 C-rate, and it showed a capacity retention of 96% at 1 C, 2 C and 5 C-rates at the end of 50 cycles. Long-term cycling at 2 C-rate, up to 700 cycles showed a capacity retention of 81%. Thus, LiMn 2O 4 obtained at 800 °C with uniform hollow spherical particles shows the best electrochemical properties. Complementary electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) studies were carried out and the apparent Li-ion diffusion coefficients (D Li+) were calculated as a function of the applied voltage. The D Li+ values from GITT range from ∼0.1 to 5 × 10 -10 cm 2 s -1. The values decrease with an increase in the applied voltage and show two minima in good agreement with the available literature data. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.
Source Title: RSC Advances
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/85449
ISSN: 20462069
DOI: 10.1039/c2ra01110g
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

Show full item record
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

SCOPUSTM   
Citations

65
checked on Feb 21, 2018

WEB OF SCIENCETM
Citations

67
checked on Feb 21, 2018

Page view(s)

34
checked on Feb 18, 2018

Google ScholarTM

Check

Altmetric


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.