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Title: Morphology and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds in SnAgCu solder joints
Authors: Chandra Rao, B.S.S.
Weng, J.
Shen, L.
Lee, T.K.
Zeng, K.Y. 
Keywords: Elastic modulus
Lead-free solder joints
Issue Date: Nov-2010
Citation: Chandra Rao, B.S.S., Weng, J., Shen, L., Lee, T.K., Zeng, K.Y. (2010-11). Morphology and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds in SnAgCu solder joints. Microelectronic Engineering 87 (11) : 2416-2422. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: This paper presents the studies to determine hardness and elastic modulus of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in lead-free solder joints using nanoindentation technique. Two types of surface finishes, i.e., organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electrolytic Ni/Au on Cu pad, with Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder balls of 330 μm in diameter are studied, and the intermetallic layers are identified to be Cu6Sn5, Cu3Sn and (Niy,Cu1-y)3Sn4. The thicknesses of these IMC layers are only few microns at reflowed conditions (less than 2.3 μm). Therefore, probing mechanical properties of thinner IMCs using nanoindentation techniques poses immense difficulties and challenges. In this study, taper-mounted samples are used rather than standard cross-sectional mounted for solder joints. This taper sample gives a larger area for nanoindentation measurements. The elastic modulus and hardness of IMC layers are determined based on the parameter P/S2 (load/stiffness2) as a function of the indentation depth to minimise the effects of underlying UBM or solder materials. The modulus of Cu6Sn5, Cu 3Sn, (Cux,Ni1-x)6Sn 5 and (Niy,Cu1-y)3Sn 4 layer are found to be 112.0 ± 5.1 GPa, 135.5 ± 4.3 GPa, 165.0 ± 11.3 GPa and 136.8 ± 5.8 GPa; whereas the hardness values are found to be 6.8 ± 0.4 GPa, 6.6 ± 0.5 GPa, 7.2 ± 0.9 GPa and 8.2 ± 1.0 GPa, respectively. Thus, the IMC layers in the order of increasing hardness and modulus are found to be Cu6Sn 5, Cu3Sn, (Cux,Ni1- x)6Sn5 and (Niy,Cu1- y)3Sn4. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Microelectronic Engineering
ISSN: 01679317
DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2010.04.017
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