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Title: Modified Rayleigh criterion for 90 nm lithography technologies and below
Authors: Chua, G.S.
Tay, C.J. 
Quan, C. 
Lin, Q.
Keywords: Depth of focus
Diffraction orders
Dipole illumination
Forbidden pitch
Fraunhofer diffraction
Low k1 imaging
Off-axis illumination
Rayleigh's equations
Issue Date: Feb-2004
Citation: Chua, G.S., Tay, C.J., Quan, C., Lin, Q. (2004-02). Modified Rayleigh criterion for 90 nm lithography technologies and below. Microelectronic Engineering 71 (2) : 139-149. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: In this paper, we have systematically investigated the dependencies of k1 on illumination conditions such as coherence setting and opening angle in off-axis illumination scheme. As result, conventional Rayleigh's equations are not sufficient to address the effect of NA and coherence on DOF. Therefore, a new metric called coherency factor (σc) is proposed as a complementary new metric of the low k1 lithography. Coherency factor (σc) is defined as the ratio of areas of captured first-order and zero-order light. The theory is based on simple geometrical analysis of the diffraction orders in the pupil plane. Areas of different diffraction orders captured by the pupil are evaluated as a function of wavelength, numerical aperture and pitch. As corresponding to experimental results, higher σc value concurs to larger depth of focus. Extracting from Fraunhofer diffraction equation for a single slit and incorporating coherency factor σc, we have modified and extend the use of Rayleigh's equations for 90 nm processes and below. Results show that the extension of Rayleigh's equations is capable to optimize the depth of focus and map out the forbidden pitch locations for any design rules and illumination conditions. More importantly, it can complement the concept of objective lens pupil filling to provide the theoretical ground for illumination design in order to suppress the forbidden pitch phenomenon. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Microelectronic Engineering
ISSN: 01679317
DOI: 10.1016/j.mee.2003.10.003
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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