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|Title:||Mechanics-based statistics of failure risk of quasibrittle structures and size effect on safety factors|
Extreme value statistics
|Citation:||Bažant, Z.P., Pang, S.-D. (2006-06-20). Mechanics-based statistics of failure risk of quasibrittle structures and size effect on safety factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (25) : 9434-9439. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0602684103|
|Abstract:||In mechanical design as well as protection from various natural hazards, one must ensure an extremely low failure probability such as 10-6. How to achieve that goal is adequately understood only for the limiting cases of brittle or ductile structures. Here we present a theory to do that for the transitional class of quasibrittle structures, having brittle constituents and characterized by non-negligible size of material inhomogeneities. We show that the probability distribution of strength of the representative volume element of material is governed by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of atomic energies and the stress dependence of activation energy barriers; that it is statistically modeled by a hierarchy of series and parallel couplings; and that it consists of a broad Gaussian core having a grafted far-left power-law tail with zero threshold and amplitude depending on temperature and load duration. With increasing structure size, the Gaussian core shrinks and Weibull tail expands according to the weakest-link model for a finite chain of representative volume elements. The model captures experimentally observed deviations of the strength distribution from Weibull distribution and of the mean strength scaling law from a power law. These deviations can be exploited for verification and calibration. The proposed theory will increase the safety of concrete structures, composite parts of aircraft or ships, microelectronic components, microelectromechanical systems, prosthetic devices, etc. It also will improve protection against hazards such as landslides, avalanches, ice breaks, and rock or soil failures. © 2006 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.|
|Source Title:||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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