Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1109/LED.2005.844701
Title: Three-layer laminated metal gate electrodes with tunable work functions for CMOS applications
Authors: Bai, W.P.
Bae, S.H.
Wen, H.C.
Mathew, S.
Bera, L.K.
Balasubramanian, N.
Yamada, N.
Li, M.F. 
Kwong, D.-L.
Keywords: CMOS
Laminated metal gate
Metal gate
Metal nitride
Work function
Issue Date: Apr-2005
Source: Bai, W.P., Bae, S.H., Wen, H.C., Mathew, S., Bera, L.K., Balasubramanian, N., Yamada, N., Li, M.F., Kwong, D.-L. (2005-04). Three-layer laminated metal gate electrodes with tunable work functions for CMOS applications. IEEE Electron Device Letters 26 (4) : 231-233. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1109/LED.2005.844701
Abstract: This letter presents a novel technique for tuning the work function of a metal gate electrode. Laminated metal gate electrodes consisting of three ultrathin (∼ 1-nm) layers, with metal nitrides (HfN, TiN, or TaN) as the bottom and top layers and element metals (Hf, Ti, or Ta) as the middle layer, were sequentially deposited on SiO2, followed by rapid thermal annealing annealing. Annealing of the laminated metal gate stacks at high temperatures (800 °C-1000 °C) drastically increased their work functions (as much as 1 eV for HfN-Ti-TaN at 1000 °C). On the contrary, the bulk metal gate electrodes (HfN, TiN and TaN) exhibited consistent midgap work functions with only slight variation under identical annealing conditions. The work function change of the laminated metal electrodes is attributed to the crystallization and the grain boundary effect of the laminated structures after annealing. This change is stable and not affected by subsequent high-temperature process. The three-layer laminated metal gate technique provides PMOS-compatible work functions and excellent thermal stability even after annealing at 1000 °C. © 2005 IEEE.
Source Title: IEEE Electron Device Letters
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/83206
ISSN: 07413106
DOI: 10.1109/LED.2005.844701
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