Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1039/c0an00144a
Title: Upconversion nanoparticles in biological labeling, imaging, and therapy
Authors: Wang, F. 
Banerjee, D. 
Liu, Y.
Chen, X.
Liu, X. 
Issue Date: Aug-2010
Source: Wang, F., Banerjee, D., Liu, Y., Chen, X., Liu, X. (2010-08). Upconversion nanoparticles in biological labeling, imaging, and therapy. Analyst 135 (8) : 1839-1854. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0an00144a
Abstract: Upconversion refers to non-linear optical processes that convert two or more low-energy pump photons to a higher-energy output photon. After being recognized in the mid-1960s, upconversion has attracted significant research interest for its applications in optical devices such as infrared quantum counter detectors and compact solid-state lasers. Over the past decade, upconversion has become more prominent in biological sciences as the preparation of high-quality lanthanide-doped nanoparticles has become increasingly routine. Owing to their small physical dimensions and biocompatibility, upconversion nanoparticles can be easily coupled to proteins or other biological macromolecular systems and used in a variety of assay formats ranging from bio-detection to cancer therapy. In addition, intense visible emission from these nanoparticles under near-infrared excitation, which is less harmful to biological samples and has greater sample penetration depths than conventional ultraviolet excitation, enhances their prospects as luminescent stains in bio-imaging. In this article, we review recent developments in optical biolabeling and bio-imaging involving upconversion nanoparticles, simultaneously bringing to the forefront the desirable characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of these luminescent nanomaterials. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Source Title: Analyst
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/77671
ISSN: 00032654
DOI: 10.1039/c0an00144a
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