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Title: Stability studies of propoxur herbicide in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry
Authors: Sun, L.
Lee, H.K. 
Keywords: Carbamates
Environmental analysis
Stability studies
Water analysis
Issue Date: 3-Oct-2003
Citation: Sun, L., Lee, H.K. (2003-10-03). Stability studies of propoxur herbicide in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1014 (1-2) : 153-163. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry has been investigated for the analysis of polar pesticides in water. The degradation behavior of propoxur, selected as a model pesticide belonging to the N-methylcarbamate group, in various aqueous matrices (Milli-Q water, drinking water, rain water, seawater and river water) was investigated. Two interfaces of atmospheric pressure ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI), were compared during the study. Propoxur and its transformation product (N-methylformamide) were best ionized as positive ions with both APCI and ESI, while another transformation product (2-isopropoxyphenol) yielded stronger signals as negative ions only with APCI. In addition, the effects of various pH, matrix type and irradiation sources (sunlight, darkness, indoor lighting and artificial UV lamp) on the chemical degradation (hydrolysis) were also assessed. From the kinetic studies of degradation, it was found that the half-life of propoxur was reduced from 327 to 161 h in Milli-Q water with variation of irradiation conditions from dark to sunlight exposure. Degradation rates largely increased with increasing pH. The half-life of the target compound dissolved in Milli-Q water under darkness decreased from 407 to 3 h when the pH of Milli-Q water was increased from 5 to 8.5. These suggest that hydrolysis of propoxur is light-intensity and pH-dependent. In order to mimic contaminated natural environmental waters, propoxur was spiked into real water samples at 30 μg/l. The degradation of propoxur in such water samples under various conditions were studied in detail and compared. With the ion trap run in a time-scheduled single ion monitoring mode, typical limits of detection of the instrument were in the range of 1-10 μg/l. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Chromatography A
ISSN: 00219673
DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00850-1
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