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|Title:||Evaluation of LNG, CNG, GTL and NGH for monetization of stranded associated gas with the incentive of carbon credit|
|Source:||Khalilpour, R.,Karimi, I.A. (2009). Evaluation of LNG, CNG, GTL and NGH for monetization of stranded associated gas with the incentive of carbon credit. Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2009, IPTC 2009 5 : 3568-3572. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||Associated gas is estimated to account for 17% of global gas reserves. However, majority of associated gas resources are small or located offshore which have made the utilization uneconomical. Operators have thus preferred either flaring or re-injecting the gas rather than utilization. Currently, none of these two options are favored as it is proven that gas re-injection has reverse effect on well recovery over time. Gas flaring is also not pleasant (even not permitted) because of stringent environmental regulations such as carbon tax. These reasons and the elevating energy prices have increased attentions towards utilization of associated gas resources. There are a number of gas utilization technologies that have the potential to make the development of stranded gas resources economically viable. Some of these however have not yet been fully developed and proven on a commercial scale, though being conceptually feasible. The most advanced among these alternative technologies include LNG, CNG, GTL and NGH. These processes are highly capital-intensive and require considerable gas reserves to justify their deployment. Accordingly, these technologies are challenged to be economical when the size of the field is small (like most of the associated gas resources) or the markets are located far away from the field. In this study, we have investigated each of these processes based on different variables such as reservoir capacity, distance to market, process CAPEX & OPEX, safety, etc. This paper discusses the pros and cons of these processes and presents the sweet spot for each of the technologies based on gas reserve and distance to market. Copyright 2009, International Petroleum Technology Conference.|
|Source Title:||Society of Petroleum Engineers - International Petroleum Technology Conference 2009, IPTC 2009|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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