Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2005.112
Title: Automatic sign language analysis: A survey and the future beyond lexical meaning
Authors: Ong, S.C.W. 
Ranganath, S. 
Keywords: Face tracking
Facial expression recognition
Gesture analysis
Hand gesture recognition
Hand tracking
Head gesture recognition
Head tracking
Review
Sign language recognition
Issue Date: Jun-2005
Source: Ong, S.C.W., Ranganath, S. (2005-06). Automatic sign language analysis: A survey and the future beyond lexical meaning. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 27 (6) : 873-891. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2005.112
Abstract: Research in automatic analysis of sign language has largely focused on recognizing the lexical (or citation) form of sign gestures as they appear in continuous signing, and developing algorithms that scale well to large vocabularies. However, successful recognition of lexical signs is not sufficient for a full understanding of sign language communication. Nonmanual signals and grammatical processes which result in systematic variations in sign appearance are integral aspects of this communication but have received comparatively little attention in the literature. In this survey, we examine data acquisition, feature extraction and classification methods employed for the analysis of sign language gestures. These are discussed with respect to issues such as modeling transitions between signs in continuous signing, modeling inflectional processes, signer independence, and adaptation. We further examine works that attempt to analyze nonmanual signals and discuss issues related to integrating these with (hand) sign gestures. We also discuss the overall progress toward a true test of sign recognition systems - dealing with natural signing by native signers. We suggest some future directions for this research and also point to contributions it can make to other fields of research. Web-based supplemental materials (appendicies) which contain several illustrative examples and videos of signing can be found at www.computer.org/publications/dlib. © 2005 IEEE.
Source Title: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/68138
ISSN: 01628828
DOI: 10.1109/TPAMI.2005.112
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