Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-3659(02)00066-4
Title: Sustained release of etanidazole from spray dried microspheres prepared by non-halogenated solvents
Authors: Wang, F.-J.
Wang, C.-H. 
Keywords: Etanidazole
Ethyl acetate
Microspheres
Solvent
Spray-drying
Issue Date: 17-Jun-2002
Source: Wang, F.-J.,Wang, C.-H. (2002-06-17). Sustained release of etanidazole from spray dried microspheres prepared by non-halogenated solvents. Journal of Controlled Release 81 (3) : 263-280. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-3659(02)00066-4
Abstract: Etanidazole, a kind of radiosensitizer, was encapsulated in the spray-dried microspheres using biodegradable polymer PLGA 65:35 as the carrier for controlled release applications. Two non-halogenated solvents, e.g., ethyl acetate (EA) and ethanol, were tested to modify the properties of microspheres prepared by the commonly used solvent dichloromethane (DCM) alone. Their effects on the release behavior, morphology, particle size, and encapsulation efficiency of etanidazole-loaded microspheres were determined, and results were compared with DCM. The particle formation process via spray drying technique was also analyzed in order to understand the results obtained. It was found that larger percentage of EA (in the solvent mixture consisting of DCM and EA) in the fabrication of PLGA 65:35 microspheres decreases the initial burst, release rate and prolongs the release duration of etanidazole. In contrast to the spherical and porous microspheres prepared by DCM, the microspheres prepared by the solvent EA are all nonporous with a doughnut like surface structure due to its comparatively rapid phase transition (phase inversion) but slow solvent evaporation rate (longer time required to solidify). Increasing the polymer concentration (e.g., 4%, w/v) can bring about much more spherical microspheres by spray drying. Although ethanol, as a co-solvent, can dissolve a higher amount of etanidazole and lead to a higher drug encapsulation efficiency, the addition of ethanol in the DCM solvent can significantly increase the initial burst and the release rate of the microspheres due to the inhomogeneous drug distribution and structure of microspheres caused by phase separation. This study shows that ethyl acetate is an excellent low-toxic solvent that can be used in the spray drying technique for decreasing the initial burst, prolonging the release duration of a highly water-soluble drug like etanidazole. The use of EA provides a promising way to develop a sustained release system for etanidazole and other highly water-soluble drugs. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Controlled Release
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/66849
ISSN: 01683659
DOI: 10.1016/S0168-3659(02)00066-4
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